Directions (Q. 1-10) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Nevertheless, with the hunt for resources turning inwards history begins to repeat itself, but this time perhaps as a farce. Development again becomes a class project despite attempts at giving it the face of a nationalist project. Attempts converge on projecting “national prestige” on the international scene as the main goal, and market- driven rapid growth for which the hunt for natural resource becomes the essential means. This class project is made to appear inclusive and nationalistic by privileging a select minority which gains disproportionately from this pattern of rapid growth. A new post-colonial comprador class soon emerges from the old privileged comprador class. However this time the task is easier because their mind has already been suitably colonized. It supports this process through the control of the bureaucracy, the media, while domestic and foreign big business, multilateral agencies like the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) make collaboration exceptionally attractive in financial terms in the poor countries. In the process, the show of democracy becomes a form that is increasingly devoid of popular content, a shadow without substance.
By its own logic, the violent hunt follows the international pecking order of power. Among the new entrants to this race, a relatively more powerful country like China has greater ability to externalize its hunt for resources compared to a less powerful country like India. In this perverted “nationalist” project, achieving a higher rate of economic growth becomes synonymous with the speed with which the country climbs up the ladder of power. However, higher growth driven by this logic also means greater pressure for procuring natural resources by dispossessing those fellow citizens who are unfortunate enough to live in areas of abundant natural resources.
With effortless ease the old colonial logic of “a white man’s burden” returns to haunt the one time colonies. A “civilized” class consisting of corporate leaders, sleek media persons and the wheeler-dealer politicians with a pliant class of bureaucrats, join hands to “civilize” and “develop” the uncivilized. Even ethnic details of the old colonial ideology are not left out. The centuries old ancient homeland of the adivasis (about 8% of the population) in resource rich regions and the dalits (16%) who are treated as rejects of the Hindu society together are among the poorest in rural India.
Together they constitute just about a quarter of the total population, but account for more than half of those who fell prey to the violently predatory growth process. Dispossessed of their land, homes, livelihoods, families, close-knit communities and common properties, this ethnic war of the “master race” continues to relentlessly civilize the “primitives”. This is done legally or illegally, with or without the façade of democracy by using state power. When the law of the land protects inalienable land rights to tribal communities (the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution, PESA 1996, etc), corporations with the aid of state power overcomes this hurdle to “development” by manufacturing consent at gun point or, simply by ignoring it. When dalits are dispossessed, our democracy consoles them with the false compassion of “reservation”.
Developmental terrorism on this massive scale is camouflaged by a liberalized and globalized market economy. Irrespective of the ideological colour of the political party in power, the states and the center join this hunt with great patriotism to dispossess the poor for making India (or their respective states) an emerging global power. National and multinational corporations are viewed as the muscle powers needed to win the race in countries like India. They are enabled with special economic steroids by granting them almost free land, water bodies and rivers, mineral resources, forests, mountains, coast lines and anything else they might fancy, with the democratic government in India at their service to acquire for them mining resources and provide special economic zones (SEZs). This becomes the public purpose for private wealth, and corporate wealth grows at a dizzying rate with poverty stricken India producing billionaires at an alarmingly high rate. They are presented as the face of emergent India which the world is expected to admire.
Irrevocably, however, the balance of power must shift in this process. Increasingly powerful corporations take charge of this gangrenous growth process with their money power to further cripple a sick democracy. Under the empty shell of a multiparty democracy, a new script is written to reverse the balance of power. The principal becomes the agent and the agent the principal. Corporations do not merely stop at bribing operators of the state apparatus, the politicians, the judges and the bureaucrats; they begin to dictate terms and replace them openly. Laws proposed for the SEZs where corporations would rule supreme, read almost like the chronicle of the death
of Indian democracy foretold.
And, yet, unprecedented growth in a hollow democracy is dangled before the people, while both government and corporations systematically deform every aspect of the democratic polity. A new script has been written about India’s miraculous achievements, combining high growth with democracy that is presented to the audience.
Question.1. What is the tone of the author?
Question.2. What can be inferred from the words “developmental terrorism”?
1) Development being done in the name of terrorism.
2) Terrorism spreading too fast.
3) Terrorism being practiced in the name of development.
4) Development and terrorism are going hand-in-hand.
5) Terrorists having an increased access to the new technology.
Question.3. The author is most likely to support which of the following statements?
1) Few colonizers are again trying to exploit the weak and poor people of the colonies.
2) A few terrorists are gaining power and taking control in some countries.
3) Politicians are causing harm to the countries.
4) Imperialism turns inwards, and the colonies wage a war against their own citizens, in the name of developing them.
5) None of these
Question.4. Which of the following cannot be inferred from the passage?
1) The State and the Center are working efficiently and diligently in making India a global power.
2) The master class in some countries continues to relentlessly exploit the weak.
3) The corporations are given undue favors and advantages by the ruling politicians in some countries.
4) Corporate wealth is growing in India at the expense of the poor sections of the society.
5) None of these
Question.5. Why does the author feel that democracy is a shadow without substance?
1) Democracy has become less charming.
2) Democracy is losing its lusture.
3) Democracy has failed to function by its ideology.
4) Democracy is enrapturing the dejected.
5) Democracy is beguiling the opulent.
Directions question (6 to 8): Choose the word that is closest in meaning to the word given in bold.
Directions question (9 to 10): Choose the word that is farthest in meaning to the word given in bold.
Answers and Explanations
Answer.1. 3; The author criticizes the present scenario of democracy and development in countries like China and India and tries to reveal the real picture hidden behind the veil of growth. Hence, his tone is critical.
Answer.2. 3; Referring to the fifth paragraph of the passage. 'Developmental terrorism' refers to terrorism being practiced in the name of development.
Answer.3. 4; Option (4) is the statement which the author is trying to explain by this passage.
Answer.4. 1; Referring to the fifth paragraph of the passage. Option (1) is contrary to the information provided in the paragraph. Hence, it cannot be inferred from this passage.
Answer.5. 3; The author feels that 'democracy is shadow without substance' because democracy has failed to function by its ideology.
Answer.6. 1; A farce is a broad satire or comedy, though now it's used to describe something that is supposed to be serious but has turned ridiculous. If a defendant is not treated fairly, his lawyer might say that the trial is a farce. So the first option "Travesty" is the most appropriate answer here.
Answer.7. 5; The adjective pliant describes something that is capable of being bent. "The teenager showed off her pliant spine every time she draped herself over a piece of furniture. Why hanging upside down off the sofa didn't give her a headache, her mother would never know." So the fifth option "Accommodating" is the most appropriate answer here.
Answer.8. 3; To camouflage is to disguise, and a camouflage is that which disguises — like the leaf-colored and patterned uniforms worn by soldiers who want to blend in with their natural surroundings. Camouflaged is an adjective which means to make invisible by means of protective coloring. So the third option "Hidden" is the most appropriate answer here.
Answer.9. 4; Deform means to make formless, but here we need opposite of this word which is the fourth option "create" which means to make or bring into existence.
Answer.10. 1; The word 'bellicose' means aggressive. So, 'peaceful' is the antonym of 'bellicose' and thus, option (2) is the correct answer. The word 'affable' means friendly.