Directions (1-6): Five alternative summaries are given below the text. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the text.
Q1. A severe food crisis currently threatens southern Sudan. In East Africa, where millions of people already are dependent on food aid, a sharp rise in the cost of staple crops looms. These are just the latest sources of concern in a turbulent period that began two years ago when food shortages hit many countries in Africa and Asia due to a worldwide spike in prices. Higher food prices meant that poor people, already struggling to meet basic human needs, were pushed deeper into poverty.
(a) An impending food crisis looms over southern Sudan where higher food prices have pushed people deeper into poverty.
(b) The food crisis in Africa and Asia, especially in southern Sudan already struggling under food shortages, higher prices, and poverty may worsen owing to further a rise in the cost of staple crops.
(c) As many countries in Africa and Asia are experiencing prolonged food shortages, an impending food crisis threatens Sudan due to a rise in the cost of staple crops.
(d) The food crisis in Africa and Asia already struggling under food shortages, higher prices, and poverty may worsen owing to further a rise in the cost of staple crops.
(e) The food crisis in southern Sudan struggling under food shortages, higher prices, and poverty may worsen owing to further a rise in the cost of staple crops.
Q2. For millennia, remembering information was costly and time-consuming, and to forget was a natural part of being human. In the digital age, the opposite is true: cheap computer storage, powerful processors, and ubiquitous Internet access have made remembering the norm. Consider this: we tend to retain our rough drafts, years of e-mail traffic, and thousands of ghastly digital snapshots on our hard drives, not because we have decided that they are worth remembering, but because keeping them is now the default way of doing things. By contrast, deciding what to delete is costly. It actually requires much more time and effort to shed data than to keep it.
(a) Since the digital age has made retaining information cheap and effortless, we have left behind our natural habit of forgetting.
(b) Since the digital age has made storage of data cheap and easy, we now store large amounts of information even it is worthless.
(c) Remembering is no more costly and time consuming in the digital age; hence, we store large amounts of worthless information.
(d) The digital age has made it possible to retain large amounts of data cheaply and easily; hence we remember more unlike in the past.
(e) As deciding what to delete is costly and time consuming we now tend to store everything from rough drafts to ghastly images.
Q3. In recent decades, economists have been struggling to make use of the concept of human capital, often defined as the abilities, skills, knowledge, and dispositions that make for economic success. Yet those who use the term often assume that to conceptualize a phenomenon is a first step to manipulating it. And, indeed, “human-capital policy” is now much in fashion. But what if many of the abilities and dispositions in question are a product of history, capable of being understood and explained but not readily replicated?
(a) Economists trying to conceptualize human capital must know that the abilities and dispositions are a product of history incapable of being replicated.
(b) Economists trying to conceptualize human-capital policy for economic success must know history and that success cannot be replicated.
(c) The abilities, skills, knowledge, and dispositions that make for economic success are a product of history and may not be replicable.
(d) Economists attempting a policy based on human capital for economic success must know that the abilities referred to as human capital may not be readily replicable.
(e) Economists struggling to replicate economic success through a human-capital policy must know that human capital is a product of history and may only be understood.
Q4. An individual is free and autonomous only because of the collective decisions taken after democratic debate, notably those decisions that guarantee each person access to public goods such as education, health care, etc. Some sense of social solidarity may remain, but it is so abstract that those for whom the wheel of fortune has spun so favourably feel little debt. They believe that they owe their status purely to merit, not to the collective efforts-state-funded schools, universities, etc. – that enabled them to realize their potential.
(a) Individual success and autonomy are a result of the ability to exploit the system put together through collective efforts with a sense of social solidarity.
(b) The decisions that guarantee each person access to public goods are collective in nature, and individual merit is a myth.
(c) Individuals owe their success and autonomy to collective decisions and efforts that guarantee access to public goods like schools and universities.
(d) Individual success and autonomy are a result of the systems made through collective efforts that guarantee each person access to these systems.
(e) Individuals are free and autonomous only as far as they realize that they owe their success to collective decisions made with a sense of social solidarity.
Q5. Throughout history, political leaders have supported existing communication technologies in order to defend the system in which they rule. Today, too, governments may be tempted to protect newspapers and public TV on the pretext of “saving democracy as we know it.” But efforts to block technological change have been futile in the past, and they would be unwise today. Instead, the political system and the media must adapt to the new reality – the internet.
(a) Instead of trying to protect newspapers and public TV by blocking the internet, political leaders, and governments must adapt to the new reality.
(b) As they have failed in the past, political leaders and government would fail to block the internet by promoting the newspapers and public TV.
(c) Political leaders and governments have consistently failed in their efforts to block new technologies by supporting the existing ones.
(d) By supporting the newspapers and the public TV politicians and governments are trying to protect the existing media under the pretext of saving democracy.
(e) The efforts by governments and politicians to save the existing communication technologies have always proved futile; instead they must adapt to the new reality, today, the internet.
Q6. The financial and economic crisis that erupted in 2008 will, in retrospect, be regarded as a transformative moment, because it raised fundamental questions about the future shape of our economic systems. These questions are not so much about the end of capitalism-as some perceive or even desire-but rather about the different ways in which capitalism is understood in different countries.
(a) In retrospect, the economic crisis of 2008 raised fundamental questions about the future of capitalism working in different countries.
(b) In retrospect, the crisis that erupted in 2008 was not about the failure of capitalism as some see it, but about the differences between countries.
(c) In retrospect, the economic crisis of 2008 was not about the end of capitalism, but about how capitalism is understood in different countries.
(d) In retrospect, the crisis that erupted in 2008 was not fundamentally about the end of capitalism but about the future of capitalism in different countries.
(e) The economic crisis of 2008 did not signal the end of capitalism of its future but how it is understood in different countries.
Directions (7-10): In the following paragraph questions, four sentences have been given, out of these four sentences one sentence is out of the context of the paragraph. Find out the Irrelevant Sentences and mark it as your correct answer.
Q7. (1) The MOEF projects itself as a professional ministry where executive decision making with regard to environmental clearances is exercised.
(2) The Ministry of Environment and Forests has brought back the quota licensing regime.
(3) Projects have to be cleared or refused on the basis of an objective criteria and not ministerial discretions.
(4) It is time heads of government took it upon themselves to establish in effective grievances redressal system.
(e) All sentences are relevant.
Q8. (1) Even London’s latest pet project – proving that Russia cannot host an Olympics as successfully as Beijing or London – could easily backfire.
(2) For more than two decades, August has been the most cruel month for Russian leaders.
(3) The August 1991 coup led to the departure of President Mikhail Gorbachev and the end of the Soviet Union.
(4) The August 1998 debt default and ruble collapse laid waste to President Boris Yeltsin’s free-market reforms and resulted in the sacking of his prime minister, Sergei Kiriyenko.
(e) All sentences are relevant.
Q9. (1) Commercial use of drones is banned by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), although it makes some exceptions such as for hobbyists’ flights in unpopulated areas where the aircraft stays in sight of a human operator.
(2) These sites will help the FAA understand how to integrate UAS into American airspace, which Congress has told it to do by September 2015.
(3) It is believed that Amazon’s new project will pose a new challenge to the FAA operations.
(4) But the skies are opening up: by the end of December the FAA will select six UAS testing sites from a list of 25 applicants in 24 states.
(e) All sentences are relevant.
Q10. (1) The Assad regime depends on its patrons in Iran and the Iranian-backed Hezbollahmilitia in neighbouring Lebanon.
(2) The Sunni-led oppositions is similarly turning to its regional patrons.
(3) These regional players, with their own agendas, will keep pulling Syria apart until a functioning national government can be re-established.
(4) Syrian society is considered fractured and dissonant.
(e) All sentences are relevant.
The gist of the passage is: Asia and Africa are already experiencing food shortages for two years. The cost of crops is expected to rise in Sudan – this may trigger a severe food crisis in Sudan. In option (A), Asia and Africa are left out. Options (B) and (D) extend the crisis to Asia and Africa, especially the rise in the cost of crops. Option (E) leaves out Asia and Africa. Option (C) gives the gist without distortion of idea.
The highlight of the paragraph is that the facilities available in the digital age have facilitated storage of data on a large scale. Earlier retaining information was difficult; now deleting is more time-consuming and costly; hence we save almost everything. Option (B), among the options, captures this best. Option (B) is eliminated because it states “natural habit of forgetting” – remembering and forgetting are used more figuratively than literally. Option (C) states “worthless information.” Option (D) is similar to option (B). Option (E) misses the digital age.
Gist of the paragraph: Human capital is the abilities, skills, knowledge, and dispositions that make for economic success – economists are trying to conceptualize and formulate a human – capital policy for success. Human capital is a product of history and may not be readily replicable. Option (A) talks only about conceptualizing and not about using it for success. Option (B) distorts the idea in “must know history.” Option (C) does not use the terms economists or human capital or policy. Option (E) is almost correct but is a distortion in “struggling to replicate economic success” and misses the most important point about replication. Option (D), though not the ideal precis, is the best.
The gist of the paragraph is: The principle social solidarity through democratic debates establishes education, healthcare etc. accessible to individuals. Individuals exploit this system (schools, universities) and become successful. But they feel that their success is due to individual merit. Option (D) summarizes this best within the constraints of a précis. Option (A) is a distortion in “exploit.” Option (B) is a distortion in “myth.” Option (D) is correct but option (C) is better as it specifies “owe their success” rather than “a result of.” Option (E) is not structured well and is vague.
Option (A) and (D) do not mention the failure in the past. Options (B) and (D) leave out the “adapt” idea. Option (E), on the other hand leave out the specifics, and captures the essential attitude of politicians and governments towards new technologies and mentions the “adapt” factor too. Option (E), hence, is the best available précis.
Option (A) is contrary to the passage. Options (B) and (D) fail to mention “economic crisis.” Option (E) distorts the idea in “did not signal the end of capitalism or its future.” Option (C) – though it does not include the perception or desire of some people to see the crisis as the end of capitalism, captures the essence without distortion.
The fourth sentence talks of grievance redressal mechanisms, whereas the rest of the sentences refer to the decision-making process of the government, with special reference to quota licensing. Thus option (d) is the irrelevant sentence.
Sentence-A addresses London’s attempt at proving that Russia cannot host the Olympics. This is unlike the other three sentences that make direct references to the bad luck that the month of August brings to Russia in particular. Thus sentence (a) is irrelevant to the rest of the passage.
Option (c) is the answer as it speaks of Amazon, which is unaddressed in the other three sentences that deal with the operations of the FAA in the American airspace. Thus (c) is the irrelevant sentence.
While options (a), (b) and (c) describe the political regime in Syria, option (d) makes a remark about Syrian society, which is not in line with the theme followed by the rest of the sentences. Thus, it is the irrelevant sentence.